Professor Emeritus and Adjunct Professor
The Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing
Florida Atlantic University

Phone: 561-289-9064



Expertise Areas:

Research Interests:
Methodologies: Ethnography, Ethnonursing, Phenomenology, Critical Social Theory/Participative Action Research, Grounded Theory
Theories: Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring (BCT)
Ray’s Theory of Transcultural Caring Dynamics in Nursing and Health Care (TCCDNHC)
Research Interests: Transcultural Caring Science
Studies of Caring in the Organizational Culture/Complex Systems/Multicultural Settings
Theoretical Applications of BCT and TCCDNHC in Complex and Diverse Systems
United States Air Force Professional Person-Centered BCT Caring Practice Development
Military to Veteran Transition to Civilian Life and Nursing Education
HRSA Research Grant: Military and Veteran Consultant to the “Caring-based Academic Partnerships in Excellence: Veteran RNs in Primary Care (CAPE-V)” in rural and underserved areas. Awarded to Florida Atlantic University, Christine E Lynn College of Nursing, July 2019 and on-going (Address the diverse veteran culture care needs in a primary care RN-BSN program).
Transcultural Nursing Consultant to Psychiatric-Mental Health Research in Haiti.

TCN Advisor: Transcultural Nursing/culture and caring advisor to F. A. Davis Publishing Company.
Certification: Certified Transcultural Nurse-Advanced
TCN Scholar: Transcultural Nursing Scholar (Charter Member)

Awards: Leininger Award
Federal Nursing Service Research Award
Fellowships: Fellow of American Academy of Nursing (FAAN)
Fellow, Society for Applied Anthropology
Fellow (Distinguished) European Society for Person Centered Health Care (FESPCH (hon))
Fellow (Distinguished) National Academies of Practice (FNAP)
Visiting Professor: In many universities across the globe.
Teach annually via Zoom (Theory of Bureaucratic Caring in relation to Japanese culture), University of Kobe, Kobe, Japan.

Languages spoken, read/write*:


Select Publications:

Ray, M. & Turkel, M. (2019). Relational caring questionnaires. In K. Sitzman & J. Watson (Eds.). Assessing and measuring
caring in nursing and health sciences. (3rd ed.)(pp. 213-223). New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Ray, M. & Turkel, M. (2019). Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring. In M. Smith (Ed.), Nursing theories and nursing practice
(5th ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.

Ray, M. (2018). Theory of Bureaucratic Caring. In M.J. Smith & P. Liehr (Eds.). Middle range theory for nursing (4th
Ed.)(107-117). New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Coffman, S. (2018). Marilyn Anne Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring. In M. Alligood (Ed.), Nursing theorists and their
work (9th ed.). St. Louis: Wolters Kluwer.

Ray, M., Morris, E. & McFarland, M. (2013). Ethnonursing method of Dr. Madeleine Leininger. In C. Beck (Ed.), Routledge
international handbook of qualitative nursing research (213-229). London: Routledge.

Present/Future Directions 

Transcultural nursing and caring science, the two significant accomplishments of the late Dr. Madeleine Leininger are being voiced and heard in all areas of health care, philosophy, ethics, religion, engineering, technology, social justice, and policy locally, regionally, and around the world. They are now being introduced into Artificial Intelligence and Multicultural Linguistics: Humanoid Caring Robots and Humanoid Robots for Care. Ideas, philosophies, and theories continue to advance through research that illuminate the values, creativity, and vision that have been espoused over the past 5 decades of transcultural nursing evolution and development. I believe that peace will only come to our world and beyond when the vision of transcultural nursing and caring are realized and lived by all, especially by we, as nurses.